The president has the power to either sign laws or veto bills passed by Congress, while Congress can overturn a two-thirds veto of both chambers. The executive conducts diplomacy with other nations and the president has the power to negotiate and sign treaties that must also be ratified by two-thirds of the Senate. The president can give executive orders, lead executive officials or clarify and develop existing laws. The president also has the unlimited power to extend pardons and pardons for federal crimes, except in cases of impeachment proceedings. The treaty clause – Article II, Section 2, Article 2 of the Constitution – gives the President the power to enter into contracts by acting with the “deliberation and approval” of the Senate. 21 Many scholars have concluded that the Framers intend to be “advice” and “consent” as separate aspects of the contracting process.22 23 President George Washington seems to have understood that the Senate had such an advisory role,24 but he and other early presidents quickly refused to obtain the Senate`s contribution during the negotiation process.25 26 Recently, some foreign relations experts have argued that the international agreement has developed in such a way that some modern executive agreements no longer fit into the three generally accepted categories of executive agreements.69 These scholars argue that some recent executive agreements were not based on a defined source of presidential authority, as an individual status or an autonomous claim to constitutional authority.70 which argues that the identification of a specific authority status or constitutional power is not necessary if the President already has the national authority to implement the executive agreement; The agreement does not require any changes to national legislation; 71 Opponents of this proposed new paradigm of the executive agreement argue that it is not compatible with the principles of separation of powers, which they believe require the President to authorize the conclusion of international agreements either by the Constitution, by a ratified treaty or by an act of Congress.