This chapter examines the impact of multilateral energy technology initiatives, known as implementing agreements, on international research cooperation in seven major climate change mitigation technologies. The analysis is based on patent data in 33 OECD countries during the period 1970-2009. We note that adherence to the Implementation Agreement seriously undermines co-invention. Membership of an agreement would increase co-invention from 150% to 200% for CO2 and photovoltaic capture and storage agreements, and by about 100% for biofuels, fuel cells and wind energy. Given the urgent need to develop effective international mechanisms to mitigate climate change, these results are encouraging and an important area for further political research. Technological innovation can reduce the costs of achieving environmental goals, so it is important to understand how environmental policy and technological innovation are linked. This is particularly true in the area of climate change, where the estimated future costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strongly influenced by the technological development of the economy. While we assume that public policy can play an important role in accelerating the development and dissemination of climate change mitigation and adaptation technologies, empirical evidence remains scarce in this area. This book presents a number of documents that examine the extent to which technological innovations can reduce the costs of achieving climate change goals. Authors Nadja Kahrobaie, Ivan Hai and Nick Johnstone iOECD.