The preamble to the agreement recognizes the treaty as a symbolic “nation-to-nation” agreement between the Cree and Quebec. This 50-year agreement provides for joint jurisdiction between the Government of Quebec and the Cree in the seven communities of James Bay and the surrounding area. In return, the Cree accepted hydropower development of the Eastmain and Rupert rivers by Hydro-Québec. In Quebec, “La Paix des Braves” is one of the most popular and consensual achievements of the government of Bernard Landry (2001-2003). [Citation needed] The agreement followed the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples and abandoned the idea that First Nations peoples in Canada must erase their land claims to resolve land claim disputes.  Moses stated: “Quebec is becoming a leader in the application of the principles recognized by the United Nations regarding the development of Indigenous peoples. Quebec will be able to demonstrate that respect for Aboriginal people is compatible with their national interests. The federal government should draw on this agreement in its negotiations with Indigenous peoples across Canada. [Citation needed] Moses praised Premier Landry`s new position: “He understands that the Cree must be part of Quebec`s dynamic economy and be an integral part of its economic and cultural mosaic.  Matthew Coon Come, a former Grand Chief who had spoken out in the past against the Quebec government (particularly with respect to hydro development) and the sovereigntist movement, said, “This is the kind of cooperation and financial commitment that the federal government should offer to other Indigenous nations” and urged the federal government to follow the recommendation of the Royal Commission. This agreement, innovative in several respects, allows the parties to cooperate in the development of the region`s natural resources. These are conditions that allow the development of hydroelectric, mining and forestry projects, thus ensuring a better sharing of resources with the Cree. According to the law, a transitional context prevailed and the parties to the agreement began negotiations on the amendment of the agreement and agreed on AFR harmonizations.
In order to continue forestry activities, interim processes and mechanisms have been implemented (Interim Agreement of 12 July 2013 amending Annex C-4 of the AFR). The James Bay and Northern Quebec Accord is the fundamental charter of cree rights. It is the first modern Aboriginal land claims agreement and treaty in Canada and is protected by the Constitution of Canada. The rights set out in the Cree Agreement may not be modified or abolished without the consent of the Crees. Generations of Cree will continue to benefit from these contractual rights. On February 7, 2002, more than 25 years after the signing of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Accord (JBNQA), the Governorate of Quebec and the Cree Nation entered into a nation-to-nation agreement to establish a partnership for economic and community development for a period of 50 years. This agreement was dubbed the “Peace of the Brave” by the Grand Chief at the time, Ted Moses. It marks the beginning of a new era in relations between Quebec and the Cree. Indeed, the Peace of the Braves is based on a cooperative approach to the implementation of the JBNQA, adapted to the economic and social reality of the Crees, in a context of increasing modernization. The Parties undertook to cooperate in the development of means of development of mineral, forestry and hydroelectric resources.
The agreement contains an entire chapter on forestry (Chapter 3): the Adapted Forest Regime (AFR), which regulates the area covered by the James Bay Agreement. On February 7, 2002, a historic agreement signed between the Cree and Quebec paved the way for a new partnership based on true mutual respect and nation-to-nation cooperation. The “Peace of the Braves” was made possible by the determination to solve difficult problems and the vision to take a new path, established by former Grand Chief Ted Moses and the late former Premier Bernard Landry. This was the turning point in relations between the Cree Nation and Quebec. La Paix des Braves aims above all to develop a new relationship between the Cree and Quebec based on trust and mutual respect. This agreement also promotes respect for the principles of sustainable development and the traditional Cree way of life, as well as greater cree autonomy and responsibility for development. They point to the Braves Peace Agreement, signed with the provincial government in 2002, as a blueprint for how the Commission could lead to true reconciliation in the province and real change in the lives of Quebec`s Aboriginal peoples. The Cree Offshore Services Agreement was signed with the Government of Canada on July 7, 2010 and came into force on February 15, 2012. Like the James Bay and Northern Quebec Accord, it is a land claims agreement and a treaty protected by the Constitution of Canada. The Accord respecting a new relationship between the Cree Nation and the Government of Quebec (called La Paix des Braves by the Parti Québécois, French for “La paix des Braves” by the Parti Québécois government) is an agreement between the Government of Quebec, Canada, and the Grand Council of the Crees. It was signed on February 7, 2002 in Waskaganish, Jamésie, Quebec, after decades of legal battles between the Cree and the Government of Quebec.
The name was inspired by the Great Peace of Montreal in 1701, also known as “The Peace of the Brave.” Since 1975, the Cree Nation has signed more than 75 agreements with the federal and provincial governments. This section contains summaries of the 7 most important agreements. Oblin, George (2007) The Braves` 2002 Peace Agreement: An Analysis of Cree Responses. Thesis, Concordia University. In 2002, the Government of Quebec and the Cree of Quebec agreed to establish a new relationship with each other because of their shared desire to pursue the development of Northern Quebec and promote the development of the Cree Nation. On February 7, 2002, they signed the 50-year agreement on a new relationship between the Gouvernorat du Québec and the Cree of Quebec (ANRQC), commonly known as the Paix des Braves. This agreement is based on the obligations of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (AQJN) related to the economic and community development of the Crees. The agreement recognized and confirmed that development on our traditional lands required our explicit consent and participation, and prompted the Cree to approve all developments in Eeyou Istchee. We are no longer spectators of the potential that surrounds us, but the main actors with the ability to offer opportunities to our people. The tools found in the “Peace of the Brave” are designed to create a healthier and stronger nation. The Federal Government`s New Relationship Agreement provides the Crees with more autonomy and resources in community and economic development.
The duration of the agreement is 20 years until 2028. The main objectives are as follows: Cree Nation Grand Chief Abel Bosum and Cree Nation Executive Director Bill Namagoose, who appeared alongside Saganash alongside representatives of the Cree Health and Social Services Council, have ideas on how to proceed. There is also a call for the creation of an independent police review panel, as is the case elsewhere in Canada. An important innovation introduced by the Cree Constitution is that it removes the Canadian government`s oversight of Cree governance on Cree lands of Class IA. Currently, Cree First Nations must submit certain laws to the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs for review. The Cree Constitution removes this external oversight and makes Cree First Nations and the Cree Nation government fully accountable for their self-government. This governance agreement establishes the authority of Cree First Nations to enact legislation (rather than by-laws) on various local government matters on Class IA Cree lands under federal jurisdiction, including environmental protection, public order and safety, land and resource use and planning. The agreement also establishes the authority of the Cree Nation government to legislate on regional governance issues on Class IA Cree lands, such as basic sanitation and fire safety standards. In the fall of 2017, the parties to the agreement indicated that their negotiations to harmonize the AFR had been concluded.
The process that was supposed to lead to the finalisation of the texts of Amendment No 6 to the agreement has been completed. On December 11, 2019, the text of the amended agreement was published in the Gazette officielle du Québec, the Cree Nation says that the recommendations of the Viens Commission will accumulate “dust on a shelf” if the province of Quebec does not appoint a committee with teeth to oversee them. The recommendations also call for the recognition of “the existence of systemic racism at the Sûreté du Québec” and the “end of the culture of police impunity.” Several of the recommendations presented by the Cree delegation on Friday highlight the problem of homelessness in Indigenous communities across Quebec, saying it is a major cause of tensions between Indigenous peoples and police in urban centers like Val d`Or. .